brian carroll on Sat, 28 Aug 1999 20:09:45 +0200 (CEST)


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<nettime> ae fragments/virilio


  (the 9th of a 9 part series of architectural book reviews)
 ._______________________________________________________________.
/_______________________________________________________________/
| working on 'the architecture of electricity' (ae) thesis to be
| finished near 2000 Common Era. just finished writing this piece
| today, which i propose is an archaeo-architectural (mis-)
| reading of the architectural text by Paul Virilio, The
| Lost Dimension. the upper-case letters on the website
| will be of a smaller font size than the lowercase letters, and
| these words will be hyperlinked to their definitions, as will
| the numbered footnotes with the bibliographic information. of
| the concepts in this piece, most all have been established in the
| the thesis prior to this text (this is at the end of the thesis).
| thus, a concept like the E-INFRASTRUCTURE has a whole section
| detailing how electricity is produced and consumed, and that in
| turn has another section about what ELECTRICITY is, etcetera.
| feedback is welcome. bc
|____________________________________________________________.
 a r c h i t e x t u r e z : an online community for hacking |
 and cracking the architectural code - www.architexturez.com |
 ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
______________________________________________________________________

 P A U L   V I R I L I O
______________________________________________________________________

An urban planner and architect, Paul Virilio published a dense
philosophical text on ARCHITECTURE, L'espace critique in 1984. We examine
the 1991 English translation The Lost Dimension here in relation to
ELECTRICITY. 

Virilio opens with a comparison between the arc de triomphe and our
present-day ELECTRONIC security systems of cameras, radars, and detectors
at airports. (250) This juxtaposition between the gateways to the cities
of the TRADITIONAL ORDER and ELECTRICAL ORDER is not coincidental. It is
the result of a revolution in transportation brought on by ELECTRONIC
telecommunications, wherein the "intramural-extramural opposition" of city
boundaries collapses. (251) 

As Virilio states, our ARCHITECTURAL notion of SPACE-TIME, and thus
REALITY, has been transformed within the ∆THER: 

"...with the screen interface of computers, television and
teleconferences, the surface of inscription, hitherto devoid of depth,
becomes a kind of "distance," a depth of field of a new kind of
representation, a visibility without any face-to-face encounter in which
the vis-Š-vis of the ancient streets disappears and is erased. In this
situation, a difference of position blurs into fusion and confusion.
Deprived of objective boundaries, the architectonic element begins to
float in an electronic ether, devoid of spatial dimensions, but inscribed
in the singular temporality of an instantaneous diffusion. From here on,
people can't be separated by physical obstacles or by temporal distances.
With the interfacing of computer terminals and video monitors,
distinctions of here and there no longer mean anything." (252) 

That our "...constructed space occurs within an electronic topology..." is
made evident by Virilio, who says that our new "telematic" gates, in terms
of spatio-temporal access, replace the doorway: "The sound of gates gives
way to the clatter of data banks and the rites of passage of a technical
culture whose progress is disguised by the immateriality of its parts and
networks... the [human]/machine interface replaces the facades of
buildings as the surfaces of property allotments." (253) 

Likewise, our new ELECTRONIC SPACE-TIME MACHINEs, such as the COMPUTER,
have become part of our urban plan for the BUILT ENVIRONMENT - SERVERs on
the Internet COMPUTER NETWORK acting as buildings housing millions online
within the dimensions of a few square feet - an ELECTROMAGNETIC
ARCHITECTURE sustained in the ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY of MICROPROCESSORs,
hardrives, MODEMs, TELEPHONE and POWER LINEs. (254n) 

Virilio declares this new ARCHITECTURAL ORDER is ELECTRICAL, an
"electronic false-day" symbolized by the ELECTRICAL LIGHT, as opposed to
sunlight or candlelight. (255) It is this new ELECTRICAL ENLIGHTENMENT
which acts as the keys to the ELECTRONIC city, as Virilio states: 

"...the city from here on is deprived of gateway entries, it is because
the urban wall has long been breached by an infinitude of openings and
ruptured enclosures. While less apparent than those of antiquity, these
are equally effective, constraining and segregating." (256) 

Thus, our ELECTRONIC MEDIA SYSTEMs of TELEPHONE, RADIO, TELEVISION, and
COMPUTER are, in their own way, the city walls of the ELECTRICAL STATE.
For example, a local TELEVISION newscast keeps certain people inside its
broadcasted view of the city, while keeping others, outcasts, outside its
ELECTRONIC REALITY. 

Virilio focuses upon the "cathode-ray window" of the TELEVISION and
COMPUTER screen as an ELECTRONIC false-day "which brings to each viewer
the light of another day and the presence of the antipodal place." (257)
It is an example of the INTERFACE between two surfaces, between two
ARCHITECTURAL ORDERs, one ELECTRICAL, the other not. 

This new ELECTRONIC INTERFACE is justified by speed of light SPACE-TIME,
186,000 miles/second, an absolute present in which there is no longer any
distance, as Virilio writes: "...property boundaries, walls and fences no
longer signify the permanent physical obstacle. Instead, they now form an
interruption of an emission or of an electronic shadow zone which repeats
the play of daylight and the shadow of buildings." (258) 

This VIRTUAL REPRESENTATION is the ARCHITECTURAL ORDER of ELECTRICITY -
as, for example, the TELEVISION '"program guide" replaces the chain link
fence' in outlining the community of a city in ELECTRONIC SPACE-TIME, as
Virilio writes: 

"Where once the polis inaugurated a political theater, with its agora and
its forum, now there is only a cathode-ray screen..." (259) 

"Where does the city without gates begin?" Virilio asks. 

It can be seen in the "invisible" monuments of the ELECTRICAL
INFRASTRUCTURE: in "terminals, consoles, and electronic nightstands." The
ARCHITECTURE then becomes "...an instrument of measure, a sum total of
knowledge that, contending with the natural environment, becomes capable
of organizing society's time and space." (260) Virilio then contrasts this
"immateriality" of the ELECTRICAL ORDER of mass communications with the
"materiality" of TRADITION. 

We propose that Virilio is describing our new ELECTRICAL ORDER, a unified
ELECTRONIC SPACE-TIME and place, and inscribing an "introverted" 
ARCHITECTURE OF ELECTRICITY in relation to the non-ELECTRICAL ARCHITECTURE
of the past.  This is evidenced in the chapter "The Morphological
Irruption", in which ELECTRONIC SPACE and TIME are equated by Virilio with
instantaneous ELECTRONIC REALITY. (261) For Virilio, speed becomes a point
of view, redefining CONSCIOUSNESS: "the depth of time of opto-electronic
teleology displaces the old depth of field of topology." (262) 

As the author states, in this replacement of the depth of SPACE with the
depth of TIME, "speed becomes the sole vector for electronic
representation" in our ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGIEs and in our BRAINs. (263) 

This aesthetic of disappearance "...no longer involves the visual horizon,
nor the vanishing point of perspective..." as Virilio states, but instead,
depth equals the absolute ELECTROMAGNETIC LIGHT of speed, relating the
microcosmic measure of the ATOM with that of the macrocosmic universe: 

"The luminous point became the vanishing point of the speed of light, the
non-place of its acceleration, a photon, electron acceleration that
contributes to the present formation of the dimensions of infinite space,
just as the point without dimension of ancient Greek geometry served to
establish the dimensions of the finite world..." (264) 

Describing this new quantum REALITY of VIRTUAL REPRESENTATIONs, Virilio
defines "telematics" of the form-image as "...not only the fact of binding
informatics with instantaneous transmission across great distances. 
Telematics is first of all the instantaneity effect of the immediate
broadcasting of a figure, its movement or its apparent extension through
the interface of a screen." (265) The ELECTRON in turn becomes equivalent
to a pixel in this new ELECTRICAL ORDER. 

The ELECTRONIC false-day thus arises with the ELECTROMAGNETIC LIGHT as
measure, as Virilio states: "The final unit of measure, the final standard
of transfer, is once more the absolute speed, the speed of light. We enter
yet again into the latter-day solar cult, in which the rays of sunlight
have become the standard of relativity and the standard transfer of all
reality." (266) By this, Virilio concludes: 

"The light of speed illuminates the world and all its matter in the very
instant in which it offers up its representation." (267) 

This metaphysical physicality between ELECTRONIC MATTER, ENERGY, and
INFORMATION is, for Virilio, LIGHT speed becoming the absolute dimension
and measure of SPACE-TIME. (268) 

We propose this concept unveils itself in an emergent ARCHITECTURE OF
ELECTRICITY, wherein the VIRTUAL REPRESENTATIONs of the ELECTRICAL ORDER,
be they in the BRAIN or in the SPACE-TIME MACHINEs, are all interrelated
via the drama of ELECTROMAGNETIC LIGHT speed. 

This leads Virilio to posit an "Improbable Architecture", a cinematic
ARCHITECTURAL INTERFACE of telecommunications wherein "...the bourgeois
home is merely the site of energy and other modes of supply. Its
architecture is an intersection, a nodal point, a fixed pole on which
inertia begins to renew the ancient sedentary ways of townspeople, legal
citizens for whom the liberty to come and go is suddenly replaced by the
liberation of home reception." (269) Likewise, within the new
ELECTROMAGNETIC ARCHITECTURE, the home is a decentered node of our
SPACE-TIME MACHINEs, such as TELEPHONE, RADIO, TELEVISION, and COMPUTER. 

Virilio then describes architectonic elements that INTERFACE with
SPACE-TIME. For example, the genealogy of the ARCHITECTURAL window is
traced from its origin as a doorway to the "third window" of the
TELEVISION RECEIVER:  "the television screen, a removable and portable
window that opens onto the false day of the speed of light emissions. The
television screen is an introverted window, one which no longer opens onto
adjoining space but instead faces beyond the perceptible horizon... the
specialized window...  interrupts the passage of bodies. The specialized
window is a puncture, a mediated opening for solar light and nearby
perspectives. In this context the TV screen becomes a selector of
electronic images, an audio-visual medium for the indirect light of the
cathode tube." (270) 

In comparing the window of TRADITION with the TELEVISION RECEIVER as a
window of the ELECTRICAL ORDER, Virilio thus juxtaposes the two
ARCHITECTURAL ORDERs that define the ARCHITECTURE OF ELECTRICITY. 

This new "opto-electronic" real-estate also demarcates a 'stereophonic and
stereoscopic doubling' of SPACE-TIME, constituting an ELECTRONIC "false
day", as Virilio writes: "On the one hand there is the primary day,
wherein we live; on the other is the secondary day, which is recorded
somewhere for us." (271) For example, the digital ELECTRONIC false day can
be paused, fast forwarded, erased, edited, and sampled in infinite ways,
whereas the analog day is linear and one-way. 

Likewise, our understanding of the physicality of the ARCHITECTURAL
building disintegrates in the ELECTRONIC interruption caused by our new
"immaterial" SPACE-TIME MACHINEs. 

As Virilio states, our ARCHITECTURAL point-of-view is transformed from an
optical perspective to an "opto-electronic pseudo-perspective, a
(fantastic) accelerated perspective, one ruled less by the vanishing point
than by the simultaneous vanishing of all points, and of all instants, in
a transmission in which all points without any dimension (pixels) and all
instants without perceptible duration compose an image whose formal
perfection springs not from an optic convergence but from a commutation of
various forms of information. In this world, the speed of electronic
propagation is suddenly the equivalent of an ocular stability, which
itself replaces, in the cathode interface, the ancient statics of
materials." (272) 

The ARCHITECTURAL elements of door, window, and mirror are replaced by a
cathode-ray framework and its ELECTRONIC false-day. This necessitates a
crisis of physical dimension, described by Virilio in relation to Paxton's
1851 Crystal Palace: 

"...the advent of buildings stripped of any optic center, in which the
structural architectonic of iron and glass behaves as the later image-form
will behave in the computer terminals and the televised sequences. In the
new trellis of lines, 625 or 819 lines, of imperceptible subtlety, the
pixel replaces the bolt and rivet. The eye of the telespectator slides
along the length of an infinite electronic perspective, and the
architecture of light becomes nothing more than the computer's memory - a
sequential, modular or matrix system that was prefigured by the first
metallic structures..." (274) 

Likewise, our ELECTROMAGNETIC ARCHITECTURE is ARCHITECTURE anew, another
ARCHITECTURAL ORDER in relation to TRADITION, ELECTRICAL. It changes our
ARCHITECTURAL REALITY through architectonic SPACE-TIME MACHINEs. 
Juxtaposing a window with a TELEVISION screen thus 'bridges the gap'
between the two ORDERs in an ARCHITECTURE OF ELECTRICITY. 

Virilio then asks: "...isn't it about time we began to wonder about the
relationships between these new energy systems and those new modes of mass
communications?" (276) We propose Virilio is referring to the
ARCHITECTURAL import of the ELECTRICAL INFRASTRUCTURE of POWER, MEDIA, and
TECHNOLOGY in relationship to humans, nature, and the BUILT ENVIRONMENT. 

This transparent ARCHITECTURAL ORDER of ELECTRICITY is revealed by Virilio
when considering the metaphysics of INFORMATION, represented by ELECTRICAL
ENERGY, fused with the physics of MATTER: 

"If informatics - with its networks, memory banks and terminals - is
actually a kind of energetics, an energy form, then transmitted
information becomes a mode of formation... the energy of information feeds
inversely an alternative, extremely brief, discontinuous current of
transformation, in which the rule of space and of the spatiality of
extension of different rural and urban places gives way to temporality,
and the nature of regimes of temporalities, produced by advanced
technologies." (278) 

This paradoxical logic of equating ELECTRICAL INFORMATION with ELECTRICAL
ENERGY in the formation of MATTER is similar to equating the ELECTRICAL
ORDER with ARCHITECTURAL ORDER and the ELECTRICAL INFRASTRUCTURE with
ARCHITECTURE.  Virilio's equation for "realizing" ARCHITECTURE within, for
example, TELEVISION RECEIVERs, TELEVISION STATIONs, and broadcasting
ANTENNAE is not coincidental, it is intentional, but uncertainly so. 

For instance, Virilio alchemically writes that "...the habitual notions of
height, length and width have undergone a transmutation, one that affects
the organization of ocular and auditory perception, and thus the entire
administration of territories and all construction. Now one architectonic
element stands ready to supplant all others"- the ELECTRONIC window of the
TELEVISION and COMPUTER screen. (280) 

For Virilio this transference is of utmost importance: "It reaches to the
heart and soul, the principle and nature of architecture; it relegates the
protocol of physical access - as well as the necessity of an effective
presence - to a secondary plane of actual experience." (283) It transforms
ELECTRONIC MATTER into ENERGY, and ENERGY into ELECTRONIC INFORMATION and
vice versa, like lead into gold. 

This audiovisual tele-portation through these ELECTRONIC windows of
tele-communications, what we posit here to be SPACE-TIME MACHINEs, is the
affect of the VIRTUAL REPRESENTATION upon the ARCHITECTURAL REALITY of
SPACE-TIME, as Virilio states: 

"The cathode window and the matrix screen are able to displace doors and
physical means of communication because cinematic representation has
already displaced the reality of the effective presence, the real presence
of people and things. Further, the accident of instantaneous transfer
machinery displaces the substance of space-time, in favor of a kind of
energy reduction and a hyper-cinematic reductionism that affects urbanism
and architecture, but above all else re-orders geometry and the dimensions
of physical space." (285) 

With the "nullity of all buildings", Virilio declares, "We have arrived... 
at the zero degree of architecture." (287) This SIGNALs the end of the
TRADITIONAL ORDER of building with MATTER, and the emergence of a new
LIGHT speed ELECTRICAL ORDER, constructing an "improbable" ELECTROMAGNETIC
ARCHITECTURE by transmutation of ELECTRONIC ENERGY and INFORMATION. 

The Lost Dimension of SPACE then becomes its seizure in TIME, wherein
Virilio states "...acceleration and deceleration, or the movement of
movement, are the only true dimensions of space, of speed-space, of
dromospheric space..." (289) This SPACE of speed is the absolute TIME of
ELECTROMAGNETIC LIGHT - 186,000 miles/second, lightning fast. 

ELECTRICITY and the LIGHT speed of the ELECTRON thus becomes the ultimate
referent. 

The ELECTRONIC false-day is founded within this new SPACE. Virilio states
that "[i]t is first and foremost accidental and intensive... Its intensity
is measured... by change of speed, a change that instantaneously produces
a change of light and of representation." (291) 

This 'new day rising' of the universalizing ELECTRON is a different day
from the TRADITIONAL ORDER based on relativity of the sun, as the author
exposes: 

"[W]e have a subliminary and para-optic day that has no relationship
whatsoever to direct observation, and in which representations and
configurations arise less from the separation of the points, lines, and
planes of visual experience, or image resolution, than from the
interruption of projection sequences. The projection of the light of
speed, which is paradoxical light, constructs the dimensions of our fields
of action and of perception, fields in which the action is no longer
separated from its representation, and so the gap between world time and
human time ends. The relativist notions of length of speed and depth of
time finally allow us to understand the paradox of non-separability of
events." (293) 

This particular wave of thought leads to Virilio's 'chicken and egg'
question: 

"Do we represent the construction, or construct the representation?" (295) 

More specifically, do we construct the VIRTUAL REPRESENTATIONs of the
ELECTRICAL ORDER within our BRAINs, or construct the VIRTUAL
REPRESENTATION within our SPACE-TIME MACHINEs? It seems, paradoxically, to
be both at the same time. 

This 'point', as Virilio says, "...is that lost dimension that allows us
to recuperate ourselves: that bug, that micro-processor of our
mathematical and esthetic representation and our temporal and spatial
configurations."  (297) Thus, the speed of ELECTROMAGNETIC LIGHT 'bridges
the gap' between the NATURAL WORLD of our BRAINs and the VIRTUAL WORLDs of
our COMPUTER MICROPROCESSORs. 

Virilio goes even further into the meta-physical connection between
ELECTRONIC MATTER, ENERGY and INFORMATION of the VIRTUAL REPRESENTATION
constituting ARCHITECTURAL REALITY: 

"Finally, informatics now appears, as a kind of energetics, as a mode of
formation, because the punctum of electronic action is virtually or
practically instantaneous... the point, the pixel, is the imminence of
physical dimensions, the accident of the transfer of the traced, as of all
surface or volume projectivity. Thus, if the "[human]-machine" interface
is the product of electronic interactivity combined with relativist
non-separability, then the synthetic image is the visible consequence of a
static conception of real time and real space. This purely theoretical and
quantitative conception finds its apparent, practical confirmation in the
appearance and disappearance of those form-images composed of points
without dimension and instants without duration, digitally controlled by
the algorithms of an encoded language." (299) 

The question of INTERFACE between these VIRTUAL REPRESENTATIONs of our
BRAINs and SPACE-TIME MACHINEs then arises, with Virilio declaring: "Ours
is a crisis of cutting and joining, a crisis of editing; we have passed
beyond the crisis of montage." (302) This detailed ARCHITECTURAL
connection becomes "...a crisis of representation rather than
construction..." (304)  We interpret this to say that the VIRTUAL
REPRESENTATION in the BRAIN of HOMO ELECTRUS takes precedence over the
experience of our SPACE-TIME MACHINEs, like the TELEVISION and COMPUTER
screen, and their ELECTRONIC false-day. 

The critical question for Virilio becomes: "In which light do mental
images appear? What day do they inhabit?" (306) We propose that, as a
CHARGED PARTICLE in an ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE, be it a PHOTON or an
ELECTRON, it is the same LIGHT of speed, whether in BRAIN or SPACE-TIME
MACHINEs, and in this way, the VIRTUAL REPRESENTATION is one and the same,
only housed in different "containers" or mediums of transference. 

Thus, our ARCHITECTURAL CONSCIOUSNESS is unified under the onus of an
absolute ELECTROMAGNETIC LIGHT speed, whether of the NATURAL, ARTIFICIAL,
or VIRTUAL WORLD - fusing and confusing REALITY with the VIRTUAL
REPRESENTATION in the form-image whereby ELECTRONIC MATTER equals ENERGY
equals INFORMATION. (308) 

Virilio concurs by stating that it is the ELECTROMAGNETIC LIGHT, no longer
sublimated, which "...is now recognized as that which gives form to images
- to images of consciousness, such as mental and ocular images, and to our
consciousness of optic or opto-electronic images." (310) This speed of
LIGHT now literally becomes the shortest route between two points. (312) 

Certainly, the shortest route between the two spatio-temporal
ARCHITECTURAL ORDERs, TRADITIONAL and ELECTRICAL, is this very same
ELECTROMAGNETIC LIGHT of speed. Paradoxically, one is a relativistic
sunlit day and the other is its antipode, a universalizing ELECTRONIC
false-day illuminating the night- The two ARCHITECTUREs combining in an
ARCHITECTURE OF ELECTRICITY. 

Virilio refers to a secondary, improbable ELECTROMAGNETIC ARCHITECTURE
when writing of "the mutual development of the electronic urban
environment and the architecture of systems... whose efficiency none can
deny." (314) It is in this nodal infra-structure, an ARCHITECTURAL
interface with the ELECTRONIC city by which a "critical" and thus
political SPACE emerges. As Virilio writes: "Since what is interactive is
also interchangeable, the urban has lost its form, with the sole exception
of the form-image without dimension, the point or punctum which is
everywhere while the measurable length is nowhere." (316) 

VIRTUAL REPRESENTATIONs of the ELECTRONIC form-image are transmutated
between MATTER, ENERGY, and INFORMATION in our SPACE-TIME MACHINEs and our
BRAINs. In so doing, they form an improbable ELECTROMAGNETIC ARCHITECTURE,
which Virilio believes poses an ever-present danger: "...totalitarian
unity proceeds disguised by the advances of civil and military
technologies, advances that have no interest whatsoever in democracy."
(318) This critical SPACE, or critical STATE "becomes critical by virtue
of the instantaneity of means of mass communication as much as through the
performances of delivery vectors of massive destruction." (320) 

It is this critical STATE of "pure war" that is inherent in the
interaction of ELECTRICAL POWER, MEDIA, and TECHNOLOGY, fusing offense and
defense in an uncertain certainty of communicating destruction. (322) For
instance, NUCLEAR POWER has a paradoxical dual-use: as a POWERPLANT
sustaining CYBERSPACE and in an ATOMIC BOMB destroying CYBERSPACE. 

Virilio focusses upon the critical SPACE, or instantaneous TIME, of
VIRTUAL REPRESENTATIONs which recreate REALITY inside of our ELECTRONIC
SPACE-TIME MACHINEs: wherein every place is the front line, every time is
war, and everyone is a soldier: 

"Everything is overexposed in the interface of an interactivity that
strips reality of the possibility of places, things, or adversaries
meeting face to face." (324) 

For example, ongoing wargames in CYBERSPACE can quickly turn into a
VIRTUAL warfare of ideas and ideologies, as Virilio suggests: "We now have
a topology of the non-place as a consequence of the non-sense of nuclear
strategy, an "electronic" as much as an "atomic" war-game, in which the
instantaneous interface replaces the face-to-face encounters of armies." 
(326) The origin of the Internet COMPUTER NETWORK is one instance of the
existential BEING in a STATE of perpetual war. 

The ELECTRONIC false-day then becomes an strategic exercise in speed of
LIGHT warfare wherein, as Virilio writes, "[t]he speed of violence becomes
the violence of an unsurpassed speed, and the speed of light becomes the
standard measure for war, for its context, its essence and nature." (328) 

In concluding, Virilio declares that we are in a STATE of pure war. 

We propose this warfare is BEING waged between the VIRTUAL REPRESENTATIONs
of our CONSCIOUSNESS, be they in the BRAIN of HOMO ELECTRUS or in our
ELECTRONIC SPACE-TIME MACHINEs, battling for our individual and collective
REALITY at 186,000 miles/second. 

In so doing, a meta-physical ELECTROMAGNETIC ARCHITECTURE emerges in the
∆THER via the formation of an alchemical transmutation of ENERGY into
INFORMATION, of sunlight into ELECTRIC LIGHT, 'bridging the gap' between
the two ARCHITECTURAL ORDERs in an ARCHITECTURE OF ELECTRICITY. 


______________________________________________________________________
Lost Dimension. Paul Virilio. Translated by Daniel Moshenberg. 
Semiotext(e), c.1991. NY, NY. (250) p.11 (251) p.12 (252) p.13 (253) 
pp.13-14 (255) p.14 (256) p.15 (257) p.17 (258) p.18 (259) pp.18-19 (260) 
p.22 (260.5) p.22 (261) p.30 (262) p.31 (263) pp.34-35 (264) p.43 (265) 
p.51 (266) p.59 (267) p.59 (268) pp.62-63 (269) pp.72-73 (270) pp.78-79
(271) p.81 (272) pp.85-86 (274) pp.93-94 (276) p.95 (278) p.95 (280) 
pp.98-99 (283) pp.98-99 (285) p.99 (287) p.100 (289) p.102 (291) p.102
(293) pp.102-103 (295) p.103 (297) p.104 (302) p.112 (304) p.112 (306) 
p.115 (308) pp.116-117 (310) p.117 (312) p.117 (314) p.119 (316)
pp.120-122 (318) p.127 (320) p.130 (322) pp.130-132 (324) pp.132-138 (326)
p.138 (328)  p.138
------------------------------------------------------------------------
(254n) This is evidenced in popular advertising imagery, such as Cobalt
Networks and Compaq computer server advertisements showing servers as
buildings representing electronic skyscrapers in the new electronic
cityscape. 
------------------------------------------------------------------------





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