Sid Shniad on Tue, 4 May 1999 17:04:21 +0200 (CEST)

[Date Prev] [Date Next] [Thread Prev] [Thread Next] [Date Index] [Thread Index]


[by way of From: Andreas Broeckmann <>]

International Action Center
39 West 14th St., #206
New York, NY  10011
(212) 633-6646   fax:  (212) 633-2889   email:


	Chapter 4a, Article I -- "The economy of Kosovo shall
	function in accordance with free market principles."

	By Richard Becker,
	Western Regional Co-Director of the International Action Center

The official line in the big business media is that the Pentagon had no
choice but to rain bombs and missiles down on Yugoslavia because the
Milosevic government refused to negotiate over the issue of Kosovo, a
region of that country where ethnic Albanians make up the majority. 

The reality was very different: The Rambouillet accord, the U.S./NATO
"peace plan" for Kosovo was presented to Yugoslavia as an ultimatum. It
was a "take it or leave it" proposition, as Albright often emphasized back
in February.  There were, in fact, no negotiations at all, and no
sovereign, independent state could have signed the Rambouillet agreement. 

Appendix B of the accord would have opened the door for the occupation of
all of Yugoslavia. 

The accord provided for a very broad form of autonomy for Kosovo.  A
province of Serbia, one of two republics (along with Montenegro) which
make up present-day Yugoslavia, Kosovo would have its own parliament,
president, prime minister, supreme court and security forces under
Rambouillet.  The new Kosovo government would be able to negate laws of
the federal republic's legislature (unlike U.S. states) and conduct its
own foreign policy. 

All Yugoslav federal army and police forces would have to be withdrawn,
except for a 3-mile wide stretch along the borders of the province.  A new
Kosovar police force would be trained to take over internal security
responsibilities.  Members of the U.S.-backed KLA (Kosovo Liberation Army)
which is supposed to disarm under the agreement, could join the police

But, in reality, neither the Kosovo police, the KLA nor the Yugoslav
federal forces would be the basic state apparatus under Rambouillet: That
function would be reserved for NATO.  A 28,000-strong NATO occupation
army, known as the KFOR, would be authorized to "use necessary force to
ensure compliance with the Accords." 

As has been reported in the mainstream media, the Yugoslav government
indicated its willingness to accept the autonomy part of the agreement,
but rejected other sections, including the occupation of Kosovo by NATO,
as a violation of its national sovereignty and independence. 

Many key aspects of the accord have been given very little or no coverage
in the corporate media. 

Chapter 4a, Article I -- "The economy of Kosovo, shall function in
accordance with free market principles." Kosovo has vast mineral
resources, including the richest mines for lead, molybdenum, mercury and
other metals in all of Europe.  The capital to exploit these resources,
which are today mainly state-owned, would undoubtedly come from the U.S.
and western European imperialists. 

Chapter 5, Article V -- "The CIM shall be the final authority in theater
regarding interpretation of the civilian aspects of this Agreement, and
the Parties agree to abide by his determinations as binding on all Parties
and persons." The CIM is the Chief of the Implementation Mission, to be
appointed by the European Union countries. 

Chapter 7, Article XV -- "The KFOR [NATO] commander is the final authority
in theater regarding interpretation of this Chapter and his determinations
are binding on all Parties and persons." "This Chapter" refers to all
military matters.  The NATO commander would almost certainly be from the

Together, the CIM and the NATO commander are given total dictatorial
powers, the right to overturn elections, shut down organizations and
media, and overrule any decisions made by the Kosovar, Serbian or federal
governments regarding Kosovo. 

At the end of three years of this arrangement, the "final status" of
Kosovo would be resolved through an unspecified process (Chapter 8,
Article I, Section 3).  In reality, Yugoslav sovereignty over the region
would end the day the agreement was signed. 

The Rambouillet accord would have turned Kosovo into a colony in every
respect, a colony of the United States, the dominant power in NATO. But it
also would have gone a long way toward subordinating all of Yugoslavia. 


Appendix B, the "Status of the Multi-National Military Implementation
Force," includes extraordinarily intrusive provisions for Yugoslavia as a

Section 6a. "NATO shall be immune from all legal process, whether civil,
administrative, or criminal." 

Section 6b. "NATO personnel, under all circumstances and at all times,
shall be immune from the Parties, jurisdiction in respect of any civil,
administrative, criminal or disciplinary offenses which may be committed
by them in the FRY (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)." 

Section 7. "NATO personnel shall be immune from any form of arrest,
investigation, or detention by the authorities in the FRY." 

Together, Sections 6 and 7 comprise the old, hated, colonial concept of
"extraterritoriality," under which the colonizers were immune from being
tried by the courts of the colonized country, even if they committed -- as
they often did -- rape, murder and mayhem. 

Section 8: "NATO personnel shall enjoy, together with their vehicles,
vessels, aircraft, and equipment, free and unrestricted passage and
unimpeded access throughout the FRY including associated airspace and
territorial waters.  This shall include, but not be limited to, the right
of bivouac, maneuver, billet and utilization of any areas or facilities as
required for support, training, and operations." 

Section 11: "NATO is granted the use of airports, roads, rails, and ports
without payment of fees, duties, dues, tolls, or charges occasioned by
mere use." 

Section 15: "The Parties (Yugoslav & Kosovo governments) shall, upon
simple request, grant all telecommunications services, including broadcast
services, needed for the Operation, as determined by NATO. This shall
include the right to utilize such means and services as required to assure
full ability to communicate and the right to use all of the
electromagnetic spectrum for this purpose, free of cost." 

Section 22: "NATO may, in the conduct of the Operation, have need to make
improvements or modifications to certain infrastructure in the FRY, such
as roads, bridges, tunnels, buildings, and utility systems." 

The stationing of 28,000 U.S./NATO troops in Kosovo, a province of
Yugoslavia would, by itself, be a gross violation of the country's

But the Rambouillet accord requires that Yugoslavia allow NATO unfettered
access to any and all parts of the country's territory, with all costs to
be borne by the host country! 

The accord blatantly violates Yugoslavia's sovereignty in so provocative a
manner that it cannot have been accidental.  It is not difficult to
imagine a working group in the State Department charged with the task of
thinking up the most intrusive and insulting clauses possible to insert
into the agreement. 

Clearly, U.S. policymakers never intended for Yugoslavia's leadership to
sign this document.  It was just another step in the preparation for war. 
The role of Rambouillet in this process was to put the onus, unfairly, on
the Yugoslav side for the failure to achieve a peaceful resolution, in
order to justify the massive bombing of the entire country. 

The Rambouillet Accord was, in truth, a declaration of war disguised as a
peace agreement. 


#  distributed via nettime-l : no commercial use without permission
#  <nettime> is a closed moderated mailinglist for net criticism,
#  collaborative text filtering and cultural politics of the nets
#  more info: and "info nettime-l" in the msg body
#  URL:  contact: